Turkey’s Energy Sources

Total installed electricity capacity (2010, source: EPDK): 50,422 MW
– Thermal: 64.3%
– Hydroelectric: 32.8%
– Other RES (Geothermal, Wind): 2.9%

Conventional thermal sources continue to dominate the Turkish generation infrastructure. Considerable changes have taken place in recent years in the distribution of the sources used in the electricity sector. Fuel switching in power generation has been significant over the past two decades as coal-fired plants have increasingly been replaced by gas-fired ones.

Total Primary Energy Supply (2009, source: IEA): 98,502 ktoe
Coal and Peat: 30.5%
Coal , Peat: 30.5%
Natural Gas: 29.6%
Crude Oil: 29.8%
Bio-fuels and Waste: 4.8%
Hydroelectric:3.2%
Geothermal, Solar, Wind: 2.2%

In 2009, Turkey produced 194 TWh of electricity, and consumed 158 TWh. In Turkey, electricity is mainly produced by thermal power plants, by consuming coal, lignite, natural gas, fuel-oil and geothermal energy, wind energy (recently) and hydropower plants (TEIAS web page, 2008).

Handicaps of Democracy!

Democratic procedures are a handicap in foreign policy decision-making process. In fact, for me; democracy are the handicap for the rational and ideal state, because democracy is not based on quality; it’s based on quantity and the quantity is not always the best choice. In democracy, maybe lots of decision made by majority, but we could not know is it better or not.  In foreign policy, actors generally take care on wishes and benefits of majority whether it is best or not. On the other hand, we cannot change the way and understanding of democracy, because there is no other option better than democracy. In my opinion democracy is the best of the worse. For example in “Wag the Dog”, media affected the U.S citizens before the balloting and without realities they had given their votes to the president, because he seemed as a hero of the US – Albanian so-called war and it makes him president again. We could see that, democracy had collapsed; because without realities and political virtues people’s opinion affected and they could not decide properly.

When we think about that democracy is not useful; it becomes just the state of “elites” but i agree the idea of elites, because it will be better than just numbers. For example in Turkey, when we take a look back at history, Demirel was in every area of politics and state. He was a president, prime minister and etc… In my opinion; he could be a good politician but an ideal country needs different perspectives and different person for every each position of a government. It affects the foreign policy decision-making process; because you cannot decide for the sake of majority; because this majority is not pure right and totally do not have the qualifications of ideal democratic state.

Finally, democracy could seem the best but all around the world there is no equality as a democratically, because in democracy everything has to be perfect. If there is a perfect society, government will be perfect but these are not occurred in the past or today. For example a celebrity said that “mine and a shepherd’s vote cannot be count as one!” it was very sarcastic but real criticism of democracy; maybe she does not have the qualifications’ of democracy. Most of the people condemned her but in fact; it is true. If people wants to have perfect state and perfect world; everybody has to do their own job and every normal citizen do not have to join politics. That’s why I thought that democracy has handicaps.

Energy Security

Energy security matters because energy is essential to economic growth and human development. That’s why counties should give more importance for their energy security policies in order to have sustainable economic growth.

Energy Security can be described as: ‘the uninterrupted physical availability at a price which is affordable,   while respecting environment concerns’.

Energy security means having: adequate, affordable, reliable, timely, clean and uninterrupted supplies of energy.

Short-term threats to security concern unexpected disruptions, whether of a political, technical, accidental or malevolent nature. No energy system can be entirely secure in the short term, because disruptions or shortages can arise unexpectedly, whether through sabotage, political intervention, strikes, technical failures, accidents or natural disasters.

Long-term threats relate to a lack of deliverability, caused by deliberate or unintentional under-investment in capacity. In the longer term, under-investment in energy production or transportation (and refining) capacity can lead to shortages and consequently unacceptably high prices.

The two are linked: under-investment also renders the energy system more vulnerable to sudden supply disruptions, accentuating their impact on prices, while experience of short-term disruptions shakes market confidence in supply, increasing the risk of under-investment in production

 

Cons and Pros Cons of Energy Sources’

IR as a discipline, considers on different subjects and different fields and energy is one of the most important subjects of diplomacy. Energy diplomacy and energy security shapes the Governments’ domestic and foreign policy analysis process. My new post will be about the cons and pros cons of world energy sources. Energy is special for me because my studies and researches are about world energy politics. As a member of the Bilkent Energy Society, this will be my first publish as a kind of report. It is just a beginning part of my energy studies.

PETROLEUM

Pros:

+ Transportation fuel for the world

+ Basis of many products, from prescription drugs to plastics

+ Economical to produce, easy to transport

Cons:

– High C02 emissions

– Found in limited areas

– Supply may be exhausted before natural gas/coal resources

– Possible environmental impact from drilling and transporting

PROPANE

Pros:

+ Yields 60–70% less smog-producing hydrocarbons than gasoline/diesel fuel or propane exhaust

+ Nontoxic and insoluble in water

+ Doesn’t spill, pool, or leave a residue

Cons:

– Uses some fossil fuels in conversion

– Highly flammable

– Less energy in a gallon of propane than in a gallon of gasoline or diesel fuel

NATURAL GAS

Pros:

+ Widely available

+ Burns more cleanly than coal or oil

+ Often used in combination with other fuels to decrease pollution in electricity generation

+ Added artificial odor that people can easily smell the gas in case of a leak

Cons:

– Transportation costs are high

– Burns cleanly, but still has emissions

– Pipelines impact ecosystems

COAL

 Pros:

+ Abundant supply

+ Currently inexpensive to extract

+ Reliable and capable of generating large amounts of power

Cons:

– Emits major greenhouse gases and acid rain

– High environmental impact from mining and burning

– Mining can be dangerous for mine-workers

NUCLEAR ENERGY

Pros:

+ No greenhouse gases or C02 emissions

+ Efficiently transforms energy into electricity

+ Uranium reserves are abundant

+ Refueled yearly

Cons:

– Higher capital costs

– Problem of long-term storage of radioactive waste

– Heated waste water from nuclear plants harms aquatic life

– Potential nuclear proliferation issue

SOLAR ENERGY

Pros:

+ Nonpolluting

+ Most abundant energy source available

+ Systems last 15–30 years

Cons:

– High initial investment

– Dependent on sunny weather

– Supplemental energy may be needed in low sunlight areas

– Requires large physical space for PV cell panels

HYDROELECTRIC POWER

Pros:

+ No emissions

+ Reliable

+ Capable of generating large amounts of power

+ Output can be regulated to meet demand

Cons:

– Environmental impacts by changing the environment

– Hydroelectric dams are expensive to build

– Dams may be affected by drought

–  Potential for floods

WIND POWER

Pros:

+ No emissions

+ Affordable

+ Little disruption of ecosystems

+ Relatively high output

Cons:

– Output is proportional to wind speed

– Not feasible for all geographical locations

– High initial investment

– Extensive land use

BIOMASS

Pros:

+ Abundant supply

+ Fewer emissions than fossil fuel sources

+ Can be used in diesel engines

+ Auto engines can easily be converted to run on biomass fuel

Cons:

– Source must be near usage to cut transportation costs

– Emits some pollution

– Increases nitrogen oxides, an air pollutant emissions

– Uses some fossil fuels in conversion

 ETHANOL

Pros:

+ Easily manufactured

+ Fewer emissions than fossil fuel

+ Carbon-neutral (C02 emissions offset by photosynthesis in plants)

Cons:

– Extensive use of cropland

– Less energy in a gallon of ethanol than in a gallon of gasoline or diesel fuel

– Costs more than gasoline to produce

– Currently requires government subsidy to be affordable to consumers

 HYDROGEN

Pros:

– Abundant supply

– Water vapor emissions only

– Excellent industrial safety record

Cons:

– More expensive to produce than fossil fuel Systems

– Currently uses a large amount of fossil fuels in the hydrogen extraction process

– Storage and fuel cell technology still being developed

 GEOTHERMAL ENERGY

Pros:

+ Minimal environmental impact

+ Efficient

+ Power plants have low emissions

+ Low cost after the initial investment

Cons:

– Geothermal fields found in few areas around the world

– Expensive start-up costs

– Wells could eventually be depleted

 

Foreign Policy and Self-image

National self-images are always affects the States’ foreign policy decision process. Turkey has variable self-images in the eyes of Turkish citizens. Turks are, Traditional, Patriotic and Lone Wolf are just three of them and i am going to explain why these are the most important ones.

Traditional, Patriotic and Lone wolf; these three are the most prominent national self-images of Turkey. These are important because it comes from the base to the head of Turkish society and fundamental beliefs and customs of citizens. When these are decided, feelings and observations are prominent, because these are the general reflection of Turks.

  • Traditional is important, because a state wants to have something good for the future; they have to be care about their history by using their traditions, because traditions are the key concepts of being a state and having a strong society. You cannot exceed the traditional borders. For example in Turkey, Bayrams are very important; because these Bayram days are the one of the factors that holds society together. In fact, it refers to family relationships and regulates the society. Also for the government side, leaders announce general good wishes and peace messages to their people; so it’s again holds the people together.
  • Patriotic is important, because patriotism is the most important thing for a society. Patriotism makes people strong and survival. Actually, people will feel better with their patriotic feelings, also emotionally patriotism makes them relief. Turks are soldier-nation citizens and our ancestors were always in a war to defend themselves and their countries. It is the reason for patriotism; because state and country are comes first for the Turkish people.
  • For the “Lone Wolf” image (Türkün, Türkten başka dostu yok), it shows that do not believe that anybody in the world, because it comes from the history. For example in World War I and before Independence War, Arabs cheated Turks and fought with Britons in Northern Africa. Actually we can say that it is a kind of paranoia; because everything is not always the same. If you do not believe anyone, you will be isolated from the world but you can feel more secure.

Some of the national self-images are affects the foreign policy of Turkey, for example in Karabag (Azeri-Armenian) issue, we could say that policy shaped according to the Pan-Turkist and traditions. Azerbaijan is our brother and we are sharing same culture, nearly the same language and etc… We must! Defend the other Turks right every international area. OR the Cyprus issue again it is based on Pan-Turkist and Peace lover images, the Cypriots were tortured Turkish Cypriots and Turkey had intervened to Cyprus Island.

Turkish Prime Minister Erdogan’s attitude in Davos

2013 World Economic Forum has just finished and Turkish Prime Minister Erdogan did not attend the meetings since 2009, which popularly known as “one minute” crisis. I am going to talk about the reasons behind Erdogan’s action.

The main reason for the Erdogan’s Davos incident could be the role that installed and adopted by Muslim world. Turkey is the one of the most important country in both Middle East and Muslim World, so rest of the Muslims and Arabic countries thought that Turkey is their role model. Also there is a relationship that comes from historically with the Arabian countries. In their eyes, Turkish Prime Minister is the head of everything and his mission is defending Muslims rights in international areas. Erdogan talked tough against Perez, because of the terrible events among Palestine and Israel. Perez were talking about that Israeli forces have a right to kill Palestinians, so Erdogan gets angry because of his mission, which is the leadership of Muslim world. In my opinion he thought that; he has to show some reaction against Perez. Also on international stage, no one ever tried to stop Israel or no country tries to prevent Palestine. There is no embargo or sanction against Israel, and they are doing whatever they want. Killing innocent people or occupying some parts of Palestinian’s must not be permissible for Israel, because they have no offset to do this, also they do not have any balance. Davos is the place that developed countries come together and they are talking about the economic future of the countries. Significantly, Erdogan’s attitude seems correct, because he have to act in way that he owns in eyes of Muslim and Arab World. Turkey is a Muslim country and the heir of Ottoman Empire. In fact, both historical and religious reasons make Turkey protector and leader of them. He riots against Israeli president because of the concepts that I mentioned above. He stormed out because Perez was talking about Palestinian issue and he was lying in front of the world, so Prime Minister acted like there is no breach or invasion in Palestinian lands. This event will make Erdogan hero in front of the Islam World and Arab Countries but in European and American side, this will led not only some economical problems but also political problems. We can say that he was behaved emotionally but it’s an elegant and efficient motion. The image of Erdogan is become more popular and effective, because there were no leaders behaved like Prime Minister for defending the rights of Muslims and Arabs in front of the international stage.

Has any of the “New World Orders” since 1919 been successful?

After the First World War, the new world order established. In that context, firstly the League of Nations, which was an intergovernmental organization, founded as a result of the Paris Peace Conference in 1919. Its primary goals, as stated in its Covenant, was to prevent wars through collective security and disarmament, and to settle international disputes through negotiation and arbitration. However, in the new world order, the League of Nations failed, since it seemed to be an organization created for the benefit of  the victorious powers. It was closely associated with the Versailles Treaty which was hated by many countries. The League of Nations lost its power, since  it had no army to effectively take action when there was a military dispute. Moreover, the most important great powers, including the United States, did not join the League of Nation. Furthermore, there was no cooperation among the member states due to nationalist feelings and aspirations, which outweighed international peace as seen from the failure of  the disarmament conferences. Eventually, in 1945, the United Nations was established to replace the League of Nations. It is also an international organization that aims to facilitate cooperation in international law, international security, economic development, social progress, human rights, and achievement of world peace.  The United Nations also consists of multiple subsidiary organizations to carry out its missions. Hence, it can be said that the United Nations is the most successful organization in the new world orders, since it functions since 1945 efficiently.

Indeed, the United Nations is a creature of the nation-state system which was created in 1945 in the aftermath of the World War II.  Allied Powers of the Second World War, which are the Soviet Union, the US and Britain, came together and established the post war order. At that point, the victorious powers of the Second World War believed that a stronger world organization was necessary, one with a Security Council that had the authority to take binding decisions to oppose calculated aggression and cope with other threats to peace. The main purpose of the organization was determined, as mentioned in the UN Charter, was to save succeeding generations from the scourge of war. Furthermore, the UN Charter guaranteed the supremacy of the superpowers by giving them the leadership of the UN in peace and security matters.

In contrast to the League of Nations, the United States adopted collective security to protect its member from attacks and to provide peace and security in the new world order.  The Korean case can be described as a collective security operation to provide peace and security.  Indeed, the Korean War is very important to see the efficiency of the UN in a collective action led by the US. Indeed, it was the first time during the Cold War which the Council was able to attempt a case militarily and it was the most important one during the Cold War.

Similar to the League of Nations, the United Nations was established to promote international peace and prevent another world war.  To avoid the structural failures of the League, the United Nations’ founders gathered the support  of the world’s most powerful nations.  The USA’s participation was secured when the United Nations headquarters were stationed in New York City.  To provide enough power to impose and enforce its will, a security council was developed with authority to take action against aggressor nations.  To reassure powerful nations that their  sovereignty would not be threatened, the United Nations provided veto authority over its actions.

Furthermore, the United Nations has become increasingly involved in providing humanitarian assistance and promoting improvements in the health of the world’s peoples since the end of the Cold War. It has also responded  to emergencies generated by natural disasters such as floods and hurricanes. The United Nations has also made great efforts in raising the consciousness of human rights beginning with the “Universal Declaration of Human Rights” adopted by the General Assembly in 1948.  The U.N. Commission  on Human Rights through its investigations and technical assistance in promoting free and fair elections has helped many countries in the transition to democracy. The International Court of Justice, which a sub-commission of the United Nations, has contributed to settle numerous international disputes involving  territorial issues, hostage-taking and economic rights. In brief, it can be said that the United Nations is the most successful organization in the new world orders.

In summary, as it is argued above, the United Nations is the most successful organization in the new world orders, since it programs since 1945 efficiently. Indeed, the United Nations was established, in the aftermath of a devastating war, in order to stabilize international relations and give peace a more secure foundation. Since its inception, the United Nations achieved many remarkable accomplishments in fulfilling it goals. Indeed, the United Nations has peacefully negotiated 172 peace settlements that have ended regional conflicts and is  credited with participation in over 300 international treaties on topics as varied as human rights  conventions to agreements on the use of outer space and the oceans. Therefore, it can be regarded as the most successful institution since 1919 in the new world order to provide peace, security and stability in the world.